of Donnie Marshall, administrator, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration,
Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources, House
Committee on Goverment Reform, March 2, 2001
Donnie R. Marshall
Committee on Government Reform Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug
Policy and Human Resources
March 2, 2001
Chairman Souder and
other Members of the Subcommittee. I appreciate this opportunity to appear
before you today concerning Plan Colombia. I would like first to thank
the Subcommittee for its continued support of the Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA) and overall support of drug law enforcement.
the Drug Enforcement Administration has participated in the development
of U.S. support of Plan Colombia. DEA is a law enforcement agency, and
as such, has enjoyed a long tradition of a successful and ever-evolving
relationship with our Colombian law enforcement counterparts in targeting,
investigating and dismantling significant drug trafficking organizations
of international scope. DEA believes that the international trafficking
organizations based in Colombia that smuggle their illegal drugs into
our country pose a formidable challenge to the national security of the
DEA TARGETS INTERNATIONAL
DEA's mission is
to identify, target, and dismantle the most powerful drug syndicates operating
around the world who are responsible for supplying drugs to American communities.
The most significant drug syndicates operating today are far more powerful
and violent than any organized criminal groups that we have experienced
in American law enforcement. Today's major drug syndicates are simply
this new century's versions of traditional organized crime mobsters U.S.
law enforcement officials have fought since the beginning of the Twentieth
Century. Unlike traditional organized crime, however, these new criminals
operate on a global scale with transnational networks to conduct illicit
enterprises simultaneously in many different countries.
Members of international
groups headquartered in Colombia today have at their disposal the most
sophisticated communications technology as well as faxes, Interuet, and
other communications equipment. Additionally, they have in their arsenal;
radar- equipped aircraft, weapons and an army of workers who oversee the
drug business from its raw beginnings in South American jungles to the
urban areas and core city locations within the United States. In addition,
these international criminal groups utilize insurgent groups such as the
FARC to provide protection for coca fields, processing laboratories, and
clandestine airfields. These insurgent groups also provide local transportation
services or guarantee safe passage of drug shipments through areas under
their control. All of this modem technology and these vast resources enable
the leaders of international criminal groups to build organizations which,
together with their surrogates operating within the United States, teach
into the heartland of America. The leaders of these crime groups in Colombia
work though their organizations to carry out the work of transporting
drugs into the United States, and franchise others to distribute drugs,
thereby allowing them to remain beyond the reach of American justice.
Those involved in drug trafficking often generate such tremendous profits
that they are able to corrupt law enforcement, military and political
officials in order to create and retain a safe haven for themselves.
drug syndicates headquartered in Colombia, and operating through Mexico
and the Caribbean, control both the sources and the flow of drugs into
the United States. The vast majority of the cocaine entering the United
States continues to come from the source countries of Colombia, Bolivia,
and Peru. Approximately 95 percent of the heroin produced in Colombia
is shipped to drug markets in the northeastern
United States. Recent
statistical data indicates that as much as 60 percent of the heroin seized
in our nation's Ports of Entry and analyzed by Federal authorities in
the United States is of Colombian origin. For the past two decades - up
to recent years - criminal syndicates from Colombia ruled the drug trade
with an iron fist, increasing their profit margin by controlling the entire
continuum of the cocaine market. Their control ranged from the wholesale
cocaine base production in Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia, to the cocaine
hydrochloride (HCL) production and processing centers in Colombia, to
the wholesale distribution of cocaine on the streets of the United States.
continue to import cocaine base from the jungles of Peru, but in ever
decreasing amounts. Coca leaf production has increased dramatically within
Colombia itself However, the traffickers move the cocaine to the large
cocaine hydrochloride conversion laboratories in Colombia. The vast majority
of the cocaine base and cocaine HCL destined for the United States is
produced in these laboratories. Many of these activities take place in
the southern rain forests and eastern lowlands of Colombia. Most of the
coca cultivation in Colombia occurs in the Departments of Guaviare, Caqueta,
and Putumayo, areas where there is limited, if any, government control
or presence. Cocaine conversion laboratories range from smaller "family"
operations to much larger facilities, employing dozens of workers. Once
the cocaine HCL is manufactured, it is either shipped via maritime vessel,
aircraft or by land to traffickers in Mexico and thereafter moved across
the Southwest Border. Alternatively, the cocaine may be shipped through
the Caribbean corridor, including the Bahamas Island chain, to U.S. entry
points in Puerto Rico, Miami, and New York. The FARC controls certain
areas of Colombia and the FARC in those regions generate revenue by "taxing"
local drug related activities. At present, there is no corroborated information
that the FARC is involved directly in the shipment of drugs from Colombia
to international markets, although we are always watchful for such developments.
DRUG TRAFFICKING GROUPS
The Drug Enforcement
Administration's primary mission is to identify, investigate, disrupt
and dismantle major drug trafficking organizations. Successes against
the Medellin and Cali drug lords have accelerated the decentralization
of the international cocaine trade. We are now seeing "second generation"
traffickers emerge on the scene as major players in the Colombian cocaine
trade. They tend to be less willing to directly challenge government authority
and are much more sophisticated in their methods of operation. They employ
extensive utilization of wireless communication devices, which they change
with great frequency. Other emerging characteristics are the use of computerized
communications, elaborate concealment of clandestine cargo, and avoidance
of becoming directly involved in retail distribution or even direct distribution
to the U.S. market. The successful identification, investigation, and
prosecution of these violators have become an even greater challenge to
law enforcement both in the United States and Colombia.
AND COCAINE PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIA
In recent years,
DEA has observed dramatic changes in coca cultivation and cocaine production.
These changing dynamics highlight the fact that Colombian cocaine trafficking
organizations continue to dominate the international cocaine trade. Colombia
has always been--and remains--the world's number one producer of finished
cocaine HCl. As recently as 1995, however, Colombia only produced about
one-quarter of the world's cocaine base. Colombian traffickers were dependent
on Peruvian and Bolivian sources for two-thirds of their cocaine base.
Each year, hundreds of tons of cocaine base were imported by aircraft
from Peru and Bolivia.
Since 1995, however,
net coca cultivation in Colombia has more than doubled from 50,000 hectares
in 1995 to 136,200 hectares in 2000. Scientific fieldwork carried out
in Colombia from early 1999 through mid-2000--as part of DEA's Operation
Breakthrough Program has had a dramatic impact on our understanding of
the Colombian cocaine threat. Using an updated production formula based
on Operation Breakthrough results, the United States estimated that Colombia's
potential cocaine production in 2000 was approximately 580 metric tons.
This was sharply higher than in previous years. Accordingly, Colombian
traffickers are now far less dependent on Peruvian or Bolivian cocaine
base sources of supply.
The explosion in
Colombia's potential cocaine production notwithstanding, total Andean
Region cocaine production has actually declined in recent years, from
930 metric tons in 1995 to 768 metric tons in 2000. This net decrease
is due to unprecedented coca eradication and successful law enforcement
operations targeting essential chemicals in Bolivia and Peru. In 1997,
Bolivia's Government implemented the Dignity Plan, which has all but eliminated
illicit cocaine cultivation in the Chapare jungle. Bolivia's potential
cocaine production decreased from 240 metric tons in 1995 to 43 metric
tons in 2000. Additionally, DEA field reporting and laboratory analysis
indicates that the purity of
has dropped significantly while local base prices have risen, an indication
of reduced availability. Much of Bolivia's cocaine is now believed to
be either consumed in Brazil or shipped through Brazil to Europe.
In Peru, cocaine
production decreased from an estimated 460 metric tons in 1995, to 145
metric tons in 2000. This was in part due to Peru's air interdiction program,
which shut down the cocaine "airbridge" between Bolivia, Peru
and Colombia. This resulted in a drop in coca prices, taking the profitability
out of coca cultivation. However, we are concerned about a new development;
in 2000 replanting was detected in previously abandoned fields causing
speculation that coca leaf cultivation may be on the nse.
PLAN COLOMBIA AND
DEA has been developing
and promoting a regional strategy in terms of our intelligence gathering
and investigation methods. Realizing that drug traffickers do not respect
borders, DEA has been instrumental in encouraging countries to work investigations
and conduct operations across their common borders. We will be furthering
this strategy throughout the region, having designated "Multi-regional
investigations and operations" as the theme of this year's International
Drug Enforcement Conference (IDEC), being held April 3-5, in the Dominican
DEA, along with other
U.S. agencies, is working with all the countries in the region to monitor,
detect and react to possible Plan Colombia spillover. For example, Bolivia
has created a comprehensive plan integrating intelligence collection,
border control initiative, investigations, and administrative judicial
reforms. Brazil has developed a Brazil - Colombia border intelligence
collection project. Ecuador has initiated plans to better monitor the
movement of drugs, chemicals, and people from southern Colombia into northern
Now that the Colombian
Government has significantly expanded and sustained aerial coca eradication
operations into southern Colombia, DEA anticipates that initial "spillover
effect" in coca cultivation will be limited to Colombia. As expected,
coca cultivation back in the traditional growing areas of central Colombia
(the Guaviare) as well as expanded new cultivation in northern Colombia
(Norte de Santander), has already been detected.
Likewise, when the
Colombian Government is able to expand and sustain coca eradication operations
in central and northern Colombia-while sustaining pressure on southern
Colombia-(a challenge which may require some time to achieve) some of
Colombia's coca cultivation and cocaine processing might be driven into
Ecuador and Venezuela. This has not yet been detected. Traffickers would
also be expected to encourage expanded coca cultivation and cocaine production
in Peru and Bolivia-two countries that collectively produced about two-thirds
of the world's cocaine base as recently as 1995, as mentioned earlier.
In order to effectively address the changing dynamics of the drug trade
resulting from Colombia's success, a balanced approach would include,
in addition to eradication, focusing on these other elements of drug trafficking
- transportation, chemicals, and distribution networks, and command and
control of trafficking organizations.
IN THE DRUG TRADE
DEA is concerned
about the connection between the FARC and other groups in Colombia and
the drug trade. The Colombian government is now engaged in responding
to this challenge. DEA will continue to closely monitor the situation.
A required alliance
between guerillas and drug traffickers is nothing new, since the 1 970s,
drug traffickers based in Colombia have been forced to develop temporary
t alliances with leftist guerillas, or with right wing paramilitary groups,
which charge a surtax for protection and other parasitic services. In
some cases, this has been done to secure protection for drug trafficking
interests. At other times, the drug traffickers have financed their own
private armies to provide security services. Some insurgent and paramilitary
groups have, in fact, become little more than bands of well-armed thugs
extorting a fee for their services to drug traffickers.
The presence of the
insurgents in Colombia's eastern lowlands and southern rainforest--the
country's primary coca cultivation and cocaine processing regions -- hinders
the Colombian Government's ability to conduct counter-drug operations.
The frequent ground fire sustained by Colombian National Police eradication
aircraft operating in insurgent occupied areas shows the extent to which
some insurgent units will go to protect the economic interests of their
"local constituents" (i.e., coca farmers and drug traffickers).
Likewise, insurgent attacks continue to pose a threat to CNP personnel,
supported by the DEA, while conducting operations against clandestine
laboratories. In some cases, the insurgents protect cocaine laboratories
in southern Colombia, in return for cash payments or possibly in exchange
The most recent DEA
reporting indicates that some FARC units in southern Colombia are indeed
involved in drug trafficking activities, such as controlling local cocaine
base markets. Some insurgent units have assisted drug trafficking groups
in gre transporting and storing cocaine and marijuana within Colombia.
In particular, some insurgent units protect clandestine airstrips in southern
Colombia. However, despite the fact that uncorroborated information from
other law enforcement agencies does indicate a nexus between certain traffickers
and the FARC, there is no evidence that any ELN units have established
international transportation, wholesale distribution), or drug money laundering
networks in the United States or Europe.
Northern and central
Colombia continue to be the primary base of operations for paramilitary
groups. Recent reporting, however, indicates that paramilitary groups
have become more active in southern Colombia. Most of these paramilitary
groups do not appear to be directly involved in any significant coca,
opium poppy, or marijana cultivation. Paramilitary leader Carlos Castano
has recently admitted in open press, however, that his group receives
payments - similar to the taxes levied by the FARC - from coca growers
in southern Colombia in exchange for protection from guerrillas.
groups also raise funds through extortion, or by protecting laboratory
operations in northern and central Colombia. The Carlos Castano organization,
and possibly other paramilitary groups) appears to be directly involved
in processing cocaine. At least one of these paramilitary groups appears
to be involved in exporting cocaine from Colombia.
DEA reporting indicates
that some Colombian traffickers are transporting cocaine base out of Colombia's
Putumayo Department through northern Ecuador and into Colombia's Narino
Department in an effort to avoid insurgent interference and taxation.
Some Colombian traffickers reportedly also use the reverse route-from
Narino to Putumayo via northern Ecuador-to smuggle into Colombia the essential
chemicals used to produce cocaine.
IN PLAN COLOMBIA
As you are aware,
neither DEA nor any other law enforcement agency has received any direct
appropriations under the U.S. emergency supplemental appropriation for
Plan Colombia. The funding provided is intended to support programs as
opposed to specific agencies. Along these lines, DEA has been an active
and major participant in the planning and implementation of projects included
in the funding of $88 million allocated to the Justice Sector Reform projects
of Plan Colombia. DEA's efforts are coordinated through the Department
of Justice Criminal Division, which acts in partnership with the Department
of the Treasury's Office of Enforcement. DEA, in collaboration with our
Justice and Treasury Department enforcement counterparts, has participated
in the development of a comprehensive and integrated Justice Sector Reform
Program. DEA will serve as the lead agency in project implementation,
or as a substantial partner in combined efforts with our U.S. and Colombian
counterparts. Projects such as the multilateral case initiative, the enhanced
and expanded Colombian specialized vetted unit program, the cellular telephone
interception facility, enhanced and expanded forensic programs, and a
variety of prosecutor and police training programs, while focused on supporting
our Colombian counterparts, will also directly and substantially support
and enhance DEA's efforts in Colombia and throughout the region. These
projects reinforce DEA' s focus on attacking the major criminal organizations
that cause the greatest harm to Colombia and the U.S., and also focus
on the importance of a regional effort.
In particular, DEA
will serve as the lead implementing agency in the establishment of a cellular
telephone interception facility in Colombia. The facility will enhance
the capabilities of Colombian law enforcement authorities to conduct telephone
intercept investigations properly authorized under Colombian law.
For a number of years,
the DEA in Colombia has provided technical material support and personnel
resources to various Colombian law enforcement units of the Colombian
National Police (CNP), the Departamento Administrativo de Seguridad (DAS),
and the Cuerpo Technico de Investigaciones (CTI) in furtherance of hard
line telephone intercept initiatives. These units operate in most of the
major metropolitan cities in Colombia. In recent years, this program has
expanded to enhance the investigative capabilities of Colombia's law enforcement
agencies. Computer equipment, computer software, and funding will allow
these units to more effectively conduct investigations against major drug
evidence obtained by these units from wire intercepts have been used to
support the prosecution of drug traffickers, advance active investigations,
and provide leads on bilateral Colombian/United States investigations.
While there have been major investigative successes, there have been severe
technical limitations on overall enforcement effectiveness.
The ability to effectively
intercept communications has been seriously limited due to a variety of
factors such as the lack of modern equipment and the inability to establish
monitoring sites in certain areas of the country. The equipment to be
obtained through funding provided by Plan Colombia will make significant
strides to close this technology gap between drug traffickers and law
enforcement authorities in Colombia.
We are extremely
pleased with the commitment shown by the Government of Colombia to reinstitute
one of the most effective judicial tools against Colombian drug traffickers,
that of extradition. The Extradition Reform Act of the Colombian Constitution,
which allows for the extradition of Colombian nationals for crimes committed
after the date of enactment, entered into force on December 17, 1997.
Since that time, we have successfully extradited 13 Colombian nationals
to face justice in the United States. Among the extradited include significant
violators such as Jorge ASPRILLA-Perca and Alberto ORLANDEZ-Gamboa, as
well as five defendants from the highiy successful Operation Millennium,
which culminated in October, 1999.
Two recent Colombian
Constitutional Court decisions, however, require that Colombian law enforcement
authorities determine whether a criminal case in Colombia should be opened
against the subject for whom extradition is sought. These decisions raise
two potential problems. First, if a case is opened by Colombian authorities,
the extradition could be delayed until the investigation, prosecution,
and sentencing of the subject is complete. Second, if a subject is convicted
of the same crime in Colombia as is being charged in the United States,
the prospect of "double jeopardy" might impede extradition.
Although the actual impact of these decisions on pending or future extradition
requests remains to be seen, any impediment to our renewed and exemplary
extradition relationship will be a major setback.
OVERVIEW OF PRIORITIES
Due to the precarious
and ever-changing dynamics of the cocaine trade in South America, the
DEA Bogota Country Office (BCO), in conjunction with the American Embassy
in Colombia, developed strategies to identify, investigate and dismantle
major drug trafficking organizations. The DEA South American Regional
Plan (SARI') and the United States Mission Performance Plan (MPP) are
the primary strategies developed by the BCO and U.S. Embassy in Colombia
to guide the U.S. counter-drug efforts in Colombia. In essence, the SARP
and the MPP prioritize targeting the significant drug trafficking organizations
operating throughout Colombia.
In implementing these
plans, the BCO operates on the premise that the organizations controlling
the manufacture and transportation of cocaine- HCL are the most vulnerable
elements of the drug trafficking organizations. As such, the BCO directs
available resources at these factions in an effort to identify and ultimately
Using this strategy,
the BCO will enhance resources in the area known as the Colombian Source
Zone. This is an area southeast of the Andes mountains characterized by
few roads, no rail transportation, very little commercial air traffic,
many clandestine airstrips and an extensive river system linking this
area to Peru, Brazil and Venezuela. The BCO and United States Country
Team believe that by augmenting resources in the Colombian Source Zone,
the amount of cocaine HCL available for transportation to the United States
will be significantly reduced.
The BCO will continue
to direct assets and resources at the command and control structures of
major drug trafficking organizations operating throughout Colombia. These
organizations operate primarily northwest of the Andes Mountains and throughout
major Colombian cities. These organizations also control transportation
of cocaine HCL from the Colombian Transit Zone (that area adjacent to
both Colombian coasts) to the United States, as well as other countries,
for eventual distribution.
As alluded to earlier,
the BCO has noted a significant increase in seizures of Colombian heroin,
both in Colombia and the United States. The BCO will strengthen its resources
dedicated to targeting the organizations controlling the manufacture and
transportation of heroin from Colombia to the United States.
All BCO programs
will focus on the identification and immobilization of major drug trafficking
organizations operating throughout Colombia. To further augment these
objectives, programs such as the Andean Initiative, Sensitive Investigations
Unit and Intelligence Collection will be the primary support for the BCO's
Sensitive Investigation Units, Heroin Task Force, Operation Selva Verde
and other law enforcement entities such as DAS and CTI, are tasked to
initiate significant investigations targeting the command and control
structure of the major drug trafficking organizations. These units target
organizations operating in the Colombian Source Zone and other areas of
Colombia. The units work simultaneously with DEA domestic offices in coordinated
transnational investigations targeting all aspects of these organizations
so as to maximize both the effect and the return on the investment.
The United States
is also assisting with programs to help the police, Colombian Customs
(DIAN), prosecutors, and judiciary as well as civil society. Programs
focus on human rights, prisons, airport and seaport/maritime security,
Customs interdiction, inspection techniques, land border interdiction,
investigative techniques, and reform of the criminal code. DEA, Customs,
and the U.S. Coast Guard are involved in rendering this assistance.
With respect to U.S.
Customs, I saw first hand last week the critical role that the Customs
P-3 aircraft play in the region. Plan Colombia provides $68 million for
Customs to upgrade
four of its oldest P-3 Airborne Early Waming (DOME) aircraft with the
latest generation radar, the APS 145. This radar modernization will ensure
Customs continued robust support to source country interdiction efforts,
and Plan Colombia specifically.
The Operation White
Horse investigation targeted a large scale heroin trafficking organization,
directed by Wilson SALAZAR-Maldonado, responsible for sending multi- kilogram
quantities of heroin from Colombia to the Northeastern United States via
Aruba. The investigation was conducted jointly by the CNP, DEA Bogota,
Curacao, Philadelphia and New York, and the Special Operations Division.
This investigation resulted in 96 arrests, the seizures of multi-kilograms
of heroin and cocaine, weapons and U.S. currency. The investigation began
in September, 2000, and culminated on January 18, 2001.
conducted by the Departamento Administrativo de Investigaciones (DAS)
SIU in conjunction with DEA targeted a Colombian money laundering organization
connected to the Colon Free Zone, Panama. This organization has been involved
in the black market peso exchange through the importation of precious
metals and jewels into Colombia in exchange for drug related proceeds.
On February 1, 2001,
acting on DEA information, the DAS arrested four pilots and seized two
airplanes in the city of Medellin, Colombia, upon their arrival from Panama.
A search of the aircraft revealed approximately $600,000 worth of gold
and silver concealed within the planes.
On February 19, 2001,
the DAS conducted a roundup of defendants implicated in money laundering
violations as a result of this investigation. A total of 21 persons were
arrested with seizures of two additional airplanes, approximately $100,000
in currency, $110,000 worth of jewelry and 12 weapons.
Operation Seis Fronteras
13 and November 28, 2000, six South and Central American countries joined
forces to conduct an international enforcement operation aimed at disrupting
the flow of precursor chemicals. The participating countries included
Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Panama, Brazil, and Ecuador. Participating
agencies conducted searches and inspections of chemical supply companies,
land and maritime transportation companies, warehouses, and clandestine
Operation New Generation
In November 2000,
the CNP, with assistance from DEA, dismantled the Carlos Mario Castro
Arias cocaine trafficking and money laundering organization. The operation,
dubbed "Operation New Generation," resulted in the execution
of over 100 arrest search warrants and the arrest of at least 45 suspects
in Colombia (and eight in the U.S.) Prior to the takedown, the Medellin-based
organization was responsible for the transportation of multi-ton quantities
of cocaine from Colombia to Mexico and the United States. In October,
2000, the CNP seized 450 kilograms of cocaine from the Castro Arias organization
that was secreted in heavy machinery in a warehouse in Cali.
FOR THE FUTURE
We can and should
continue to identify and build cases against the leaders of the new criminal
groups from Colombia. These criminals have already moved to make our task
more difficult by withdrawing from positions of vulnerability and maintaining
a much lower profile than their predecessors did. A number of initiatives
hold particular promise for success:
The special program
of vetted units, funded by the U.S. Congress under the Vetted Unit Initiative,
continues to make it possible to convert existing partially vetted units
of the CNP into fully vetted teams. These teams of investigators will
work closely with DEA and will conduct high-level drug investigations
in Colombia and the region without fear of compromise. This program is,
by far, our most important investigative tool.
We intend to carry
out even more of the cutting-edge, sophisticated investigations like White
Horse and Millennium, as part of a joint DOJ Criminal Division / DEA bilateral
case initiative with our Colombian counterparts. Such operations benefit
from the closest possible cooperation between the DEA and CNP. These investigations
will continue to lead to the dismantling of major portions of the most
significant drug trafficking organizations operating in Colombia today.
Operation Millennium successfully targeted major traffickers who had previously
operated without fear of capture or prosecution in the United States,
believing that only their low-level operatives were at risk. These operations
effectively demonstrated that even the highest level traffickers based
in foreign countries could not manage drug operations inside the United
States with impunity. Operation Millennium was made possible by direct
support from the governments of Colombia and Mexico. These operations
underscore the importance of cooperation among international drug law
DEA will continue
to work closely with specially trained and vetted Colombian task force
units to develop joint cases, such as Operation Millennium. The Justice
Initiative portion of Plan Colombia provides for specific support for
these types of initiatives, including training and support for a counter-narcotics
task force and an anti- money laundering and asset forfeiture task force-
We look forward to supporting these training programs and then working
with our Colombian counterparts in the day-to-day investigative work.
The government of
Colombia faces dramatic challenges to the rule of law, many of which are
directly related to drug trafficking. Plan Colombia addresses many of
these challenges. The support to multilateral investigations, counter
drug units and money laundering sections of the Justice Initiative portion
of Plan Colombia can help DEA, Colombian National Police, DAS and Colombian
Prosecutors efforts to fight drug trafficking in Colombia. Other sections
of the Justice Initiative of Plan Colombia can provide indirect support
to DEA, Colombian National Police, DAS and Colombian Prosecutor General's
efforts to investigate major Colombian Drug Trafficking Organizations.
These initiatives include support to money laundering and asset forfeiture,
training for police prosecutors and judges, security for victim and witnesses,
prison assistance and procedural and legislative reforms to the Colombian
The DEA remains committed
to our primary goal of targeting and arresting the most significant drug
traffickers in the world today. In particular, we will continue to work
in close partnership with our counterparts in Colombia. This is a partnership
in which we have invested substantial time and resources for the past
twenty years, and which has yielded great success. These successes include
the previously mentioned investigations, and the demise of the Cali and
Medellin Cartels. The ultimate test of success will come when we bring
to justice the drug lords who control their vast empires of crime which
bring misery to so many nations. They must be arrested, tried and convicted,
and sentenced in their own countries to prison terms commensurate with
their crimes, or, as appropriate, extradited to the United States to face
justice in U.S. courts. Plan Colombia's emphasis on bringing the Colombian
Military into the fight against drugs is laudable; and necessary. At the
same time we must continue to aggressively support civilian anti-drug
units such as the CNP. No one agency or country can win this fight alone.
Thank you for the
opportunity to testify before the Subcommittee today. I will be happy
to respond to any questions you may have.