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Last Updated:10/2/01
Relevant Excerpts from Senate Appropriations Committee Report 107-58, September 4, 2001
107 th Congress
Report

SENATE
1st Session
107 58

FOREIGN OPERATIONS, EXPORT FINANCING, AND RELATED PROGRAMS APPROPRIATION BILL, 2002

September 4, 2001.--Ordered to be printed

Mr. Leahy, from the Committee on Appropriations, submitted the following REPORT
[To accompany H.R. 2506]

The Committee on Appropriations to which was referred the bill (H.R. 2506), making appropriations for Foreign operations and related programs for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2002, and for other purposes, reports the same to the Senate with an amendment and recommends that the bill as amended do pass.

...

ANDEAN COUNTERDRUG INITIATIVE

Appropriations, 2001 ...........................

Budget estimate, 2002 $731,000,000

House allowance 675,000,000

Committee recommendation 567,000,000

The Committee has provided a total of $718,000,000 for the Andean Regional Initiative requested by the Administration, of which $567,000,000 is for the Andean Counterdrug Initiative.

FISCAL YEAR 2002 ANDEAN REGIONAL INITIATIVE

Request Committee recommendation

Andean Counterdrug Initiative: $438,500,000 $367,000,000

Other Andean Assistance: Humanitarian and Development Programs 147,290,000 147,000,000

-------------- --------------------------

Total, Andean Regional Initiative 882,290,000 718,000,000

When added to fiscal year 2001 bilateral assistance to the region and approximately $1,300,000,000 for Plan Colombia, this appropriation of $718,000,000 in fiscal year 2002 will bring total U.S. contributions to the Andean region to more than $2,000,000,000 over the last 2 years. The Committee notes that Plan Colombia is a $7,500,000,000, 6 year effort, developed in conjunction with the Colombian Government, to combat drug trafficking and support democracy and economic development in Colombia. An unspecified portion of the non-United States funds for Plan Colombia are to be contributed by other donors, including the European Union (EU) and the international financial institutions, as well as the Colombian Government itself. So far, few if any funds have actually been provided by the EU. It is unclear how much the Colombian Government has provided above its regular budget for defense, law enforcement, and social programs.

Seventy-nine percent of the fiscal year 2001 U.S. funds were for military and police programs, including the purchase of Blackhawk helicopters, training Colombian counterdrug battalions, aerial fumigation of coca and poppy, and related activities. The remainder was for economic, social, and justice programs. Most of the military and police assistance has been committed. Although the first Blackhawks did not arrive in Colombia until July 27, 2001, the Colombian Government reports that a large portion of the coca crop has already been destroyed. In contrast, the economic, social, and justice programs have barely begun.

The Committee believes that because of the threats posed by drug traffickers, rebels, and paramilitaries in Colombia, the United States should strongly support Colombia and its neighbors. However, the Congress and Administration appear to share the view that unless the demand for illegal drugs is curtailed in the United States, the Andean Counterdrug Program will not succeed.

While it is too soon to pass judgment on the success or failure of this initiative, the Committee is concerned that far too little priority has been given to utilizing the fiscal year 2001 funds for economic, social, and justice programs. Although the fumigation effort has gone forward rapidly, paramilitary violence has increased sharply, hundreds of thousands of people are displaced in their own country, and little has been provided in the way of alternative sources of income for Colombian farmers whose coca crops, and in some instances their licit crops, have been destroyed. Similarly, few of the funds appropriated last year to strengthen the justice system, particularly the Colombian Attorney General's Human Rights Unit, have been spent.

The Committee believes that $718,000,000 for the Andean region is a substantial investment, on top of last year's $1,300,000,000 appropriation, and the most that can reasonably be provided given other demands on the budget and the lack of any evidence, to date, that this initiative will have an appreciable impact on America's drug problem. The Committee also notes that many Members have expressed concerns that this program is drawing the United States into a prolonged civil war that may pose grave risks to American personnel and further hardships for the Colombian people. At least $200,000,000 of the counterdrug funds are to be apportioned directly to USAID for economic and social programs, in order to facilitate faster disbursement of these funds. The Committee has retained limits imposed in fiscal year 2001 on the number of U.S. military on duty, and U.S. civilian personnel employed, in Colombia.

The Administration did not request funds to procure new aircraft for the Andean countries, as the costs involved would limit the allocation for economic and social programs. The Committee, however, is aware that certain types of aircraft could be used by these governments to enhance counternarcotics efforts. Therefore, no later than 90 days after enactment, the Committee expects the State Department to submit a report on the feasibility of procuring additional aircraft for Bolivia, Colombia, and Ecuador, within the projected budget for counternarcotics programs in fiscal year 2003.

The Committee is aware of the successful work of Aid To Artisans (ATA), which provides technical assistance and marketing support to artisans in poor countries. ATA has proposed an Andean Artisan Enterprise Initiative, to expand markets for artisans in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. The Committee believes that this type of program should be supported to provide viable, alternative sources of income to people in this region.

The Committee is supportive of biotechnology research at American institutions to promote the cultivation of alternative crops, including cocoa, in the Andean countries.

COLOMBIA

The Committee believes that a peaceful and prosperous Colombia is important to United States interests in the western hemisphere, and that the foundation for any successful counternarcotics strategy is economic development, a lasting resolution of civil strife and the implementation of meaningful political, legal, economic, and social reforms. The Committee recognizes some progress on human rights, but strongly condemns paramilitary and insurgent groups, and the Colombian military involved in committing atrocities against noncombatants. The Committee recommends an increased emphasis on support for programs that protect and promote human rights, the rule of law, and the economic welfare of the Colombian people.

Like last year, the Committee has included conditions on assistance to the Colombian military which emphasize respect for human rights and civilian justice. The Committee is particularly concerned about the surge in paramilitary violence, persistent reports of cooperation between the military and paramilitaries, and the impunity of military officers who order or commit atrocities. The Committee believes that far more aggressive action is needed, by the Colombian Government and military, to thwart it. This should also be a priority for United States policy.

The Committee is alarmed by the pattern of attacks against trade unionists; 112 were killed in 2000, and another 51 by June 2001. Little effort, if any, has been made to apprehend and bring to justice those responsible.

The Committee also deplores the ongoing abuses by the FARC, extensively documented by human rights organizations, including the forced recruitment of child soldiers, murder, kidnaping, and collusion with drug traffickers. The Committee calls on other nations, particularly Mexico and the Scandinavian countries, to exert greater influence on the FARC to repudiate these tactics and participate seriously in negotiations toward a settlement of the conflict. Similar to last year, in order to continue to monitor the use of the funds made available for this initiative, the Committee expects that, not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of the Act and every 120 days thereafter, the Secretary of State will submit a report to the Committees on Appropriations containing--

--A description of the extent to which the Colombian armed forces have suspended from the armed forces those members, of whatever rank, who have been credibly alleged to have committed gross violations of human rights, and are providing to civilian prosecutors and judicial authorities requested information concerning the nature and cause of the suspension.

--An assessment of the extent to which the Colombian armed forces are cooperating with civilian authorities, including providing access to witnesses and relevant military information, in prosecuting and punishing in civilian courts those members, of whatever rank, who have been credibly alleged to have committed gross violations of human rights, or to have aided or abetted paramilitary groups.

--An assessment of the extent to which the Colombian armed forces are severing links, including intelligence sharing, at the command, battalion, and brigade levels, with paramilitary groups, and executing outstanding arrest warrants for members of such groups.

--A description of the extent to which attacks against human rights defenders, trade unionists and government prosecutors, investigators and civilian judicial officials, are being investigated and the alleged perpetrators brought to justice.

--A description of actions taken by the United States, the Colombian Government, and other countries to promote and support negotiations toward a settlement of the conflict in Colombia.

--An accounting of the financial support for Plan Colombia provided by the Government of Colombia (compared to its expenditures prior to fiscal year 2001) and the international community.

The Committee is aware of national security legislation passed by the Colombian Congress on June 20, 2001. The Secretary of State is requested to submit a report not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of the Act and 120 days thereafter, containing--

--An accounting of incidents of arbitrary and prolonged incommunicado detention by members of the Colombian armed forces and police, and whether those incidents have increased;

--An assessment of the effectiveness of investigations conducted by military personnel, as provided for in the security law, compared to those carried out by civilian authorities; and

--An analysis of the effects of the security law on Colombia's commitments under international treaties.

NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES

The Committee is concerned about the spill-over of the narcotics trade from Colombia to its neighbors, and commends the Administration for its regional approach this year. It may only be a matter of time before Colombia's neighbors face large influxes of refugees, drug traffickers, and insurgents.

Bolivia .--The Committee is concerned that this spill-over effect may undermine the achievements of the Bolivian Government in eradicating coca growth within its borders. The Committee recognizes the success of alternative development activities in Bolivia, and commends the Bolivian Government for its counterdrug efforts. The Committee expects the State Department to provide sufficient funding to continue these activities. The Committee continues to be concerned with reports of unsolved cases of human rights abuses involving security forces that may receive U.S. assistance. The Committee expects that the U.S. Embassy will be more vigilant in pursuing human rights issues with the Government of Bolivia and determining if there is compliance with applicable U.S. laws governing the provision of assistance.

Ecuador .--Ecuadoran law enforcement personnel have noted incursions by rebels and paramilitaries, cocaine laboratories, kidnappings of foreign employees, and coca cultivation within Ecuadoran territory. The Committee urges the State Department to give priority to programs that assist Ecuador in strengthening border security.

Peru .--The Committee notes the success of the Government of Peru in reducing the country's domestic coca crop. The Committee recognizes that narco-traffickers in Colombia may seek to migrate to growing areas inside Peru, should counterdrug efforts prove effective in Colombia. The Government of Peru has brought to the Committee's attention its concern with new methods of cocaine production, new air trafficking routes, and increased land and maritime transportation that may weaken once successful interdiction efforts. The Committee expects the State Department to assess Peru's priority counterdrug needs, as well as programs to strengthen democracy, civil society, and the rule of law in Peru.

The Committee notes the tragic deaths of Veronica Bowers and Charity Bowers in the shooting down of their aircraft by the Peruvian military in April 2001, and expects the State Department to consult the Committee regarding any plan to resume a policy of shooting down suspected drug-trafficking aircraft.

As of October 2, 2001, this document was also available online at ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/thomas/cp107/sr058.txt

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