Adam Isacson

Still trying to understand Latin America, my own country, and why so few consequences are intended. These views are not necessarily my employer’s.


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Migration data from Mexico

Sometime at the very end of June, Mexico’s Interior Department released data about migration through the country in the month of May. It turns out that May was the fourth-busiest ever month that Mexico has experienced, with authorities apprehending 32,948 migrants from other countries.

This next chart used to be almost entirely blue, brown, and yellow, representing the three countries of Central America’s “Northern Triangle,” who made up nearly all migrants coming through Mexico. Now, though, those countries make up only 54 percent of the total.

The rest—shown in green—come from the rest of the world, mainly the Americas. Here’s all nationalities with at least 100 apprehended migrants in Mexico in May:

  1. Honduras 7,512
  2. Guatemala 7,046
  3. Nicaragua 3,462
  4. El Salvador 3,285
  5. Cuba 3,141
  6. Colombia 3,016
  7. Peru 1,165
  8. Venezuela 1,640
  9. Ecuador 756
  10. Brazil 398
  11. Russia 271
  12. Haiti 246
  13. Dominican Republic 102

The number of apprehended migrants from Haiti (#12) has fallen sharply: fewer than those from Russia in May. Haitian migration through Mexico reached a peak last September, the month of the “whipping” or “flailing reins” incident in Del Rio, Texas. That month, Mexican forces apprehended 9,009 Haitian citizens.

Here is the latest data about deportations of Mexicans into Mexico. This statistic has reached higher levels than during the last two years of the Trump administration, in part due to a larger number of Mexican citizens attempting to migrate into the United States. Notable is the recent growth of this chart’s yellow segment: deportations into Tamaulipas, the only Mexican border state considered so violent and dangerous that the U.S. State Department has given it a Level 4 “Do Not Travel” warning.

The data underlying these charts is from the Mexican Interior Department’s Migratory Statistics Unit. I used Table 3.1.1 and Table 5.1.

Latin America Security-Related News: July 4-5, 2022

(Even more here)

July 5, 2022

Bolivia, Chile, Venezuela

En Bolivia, las investigaciones siguen para verificar la presencia del Tren de Aragua en algunas localidades de la frontera y si hay emisarios en las ciudades capitales


Si gana el “rechazo”, la Constitución de 1980 seguirá vigente, en contraste con la abrumadora mayoría (casi 80%) que votó por su reemplazo


“Durán” era uno de los rostros más visibles de la Mesa Autónoma de Reincorporación, creada por excombatientes inconformes con el Partido Comunes

A weakened Second Marquetalia means it could be taken over by another group. In its heartland of Norte de Santander and Apure, the ELN is in a position to do so


He said the assailants offered soldiers $500,000 to free one of the detained suspects, and when soldiers refused, a gunfight broke out and one soldier was killed


Los operativos de erradicación de cultivos de hoja de coca están provocando una escalada de “narcoviolencia” en la selva central de Perú, donde incrementaron el acoso, las amenazas e intimidaciones de los narcotraficantes hacia líderes indígenas, denunció el pueblo nativo Kakataibo


Los deberes y obligaciones que se desprenden del ejercicio de funciones militares, especialmente para generales y almirantes en el ejercicio de sus competencias, pueden generar responsabilidad del Estado

July 4, 2022


El presidente está empeñado en mostrar los resultados de su plan de Gobierno, pero la “humillación” que sufrió la Policía hace más de 10 días por sicarios ligados al tráfico de drogas activó respuestas contradictorias y tensiones políticas

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Social leaders in Colombia: the crisis is not abating

The UN verification mission in Colombia counted 56 killings of human rights defenders and social leaders in just 3 months, from March 26 to June 27. (All but seven remain to be verified.)

That’s three homicides every five days. In the nearly five years and four months before this latest quarterly reporting period, the UN Mission counted about one homicide very four days.

For people who want to participate non-violently in local politics, the pace of death is not slowing.

The image is from the infographic report accompanying the UN Mission’s latest quarterly report on the peace process. The press release summarizing that report is here.

Latin America-related online events this week

Tuesday, July 5

  • 8:00am at Vienna NGO Committee on Drugs Zoom: Webinar for Civil Society: The World Drug Report 2022 (RSVP required).

Wednesday, July 6, 2022

  • 10:00-11:30 at Preparations and Challenges Ahead of Brazil’s 2022 Presidential Election (RSVP required).
  • 12:00 at UCSD US-Mex Zoom: Vida y violencia en la Sierra Tarahumara (RSVP required).

Thursday, July 7

Friday, July 8

  • 12:00 at UCSD US-Mex Zoom: Prohibición al aborto en Estados Unidos: Impacto en comunidad migrante y México (RSVP required).

Latest data from Mexico’s asylum system

9,740 people requested asylum in Mexico in June. That’s slightly fewer than in February, March, and April, but still puts Mexico’s refugee agency, COMAR, on track for its second-largest year ever.

Last year, a large number of Haitian citizens, migrating north after spending years living mostly in Brazil and Chile, made Haiti the number-one country of origin for asylum seekers. (The Chileans who appear here in 2020 and 2021 were almost entirely the Chilean-born children of Haitian migrants.)

This year, Honduras has returned to the number-one position that it has held during recent years. Arrivals from Cuba, Venezuela, and Nicaragua all appear likely to break past records.

Recent writing…

You may be wondering what’s the point of maintaining a personal website, if you don’t even use it to post links to things you’ve created at the moment they go public. You’d have a good point.

My only defense is something along the lines of “deadlines meetings too much happening in the news when do I sleep.” That’s a poor defense, though, because it only takes a couple of minutes to post things here, I enjoy maintaining this space, and I want it to be a useful resource.

So here’s what’s come out lately:

The Tragedy in Texas Was Avoidable, Just Like Hundreds of Other Migrant Deaths on U.S. Soil This Year: (posted June 28) As we absorbed the horror of the mass death of migrants in a cargo container in Texas, we published this commentary explaining the larger context: 2022 was already on its way to being a record year for grisly and preventable deaths of migrants on U.S. soil along the border. It’s a result of policies put in place by people in our federal government who have—I don’t know how else to put it—a really cavalier attitude about the deaths of people who’ve committed no crimes.

From rebel to president: Colombia’s new leftist leader: An hourlong English unpacking of Colombia’s election result on BBC’s “Real Story” program, with journalist Catalina Lobo-Guerrero and Oscar Guardiola-Rivera of Birkbeck, University of London.

Migration and the Summit of the Americas: (posted June 23) a podcast I hosted with three WOLA colleagues. Between myself, VP for Programs Maureen Meyer, Mexico and Migrant Rights Program Director Stephanie Brewer, and Program Assistant Lesly Tejada, since March we’ve done field research in four of the nine sectors into which the U.S. Border Patrol divides the U.S.-Mexico border, we’ve been to the Mexico-Guatemala border, and we’ve attended the Summit of the Americas in Los Angeles, where migration was a big topic. Here, we talk about all of that.

A fresh start for Colombia … and for US policy? (posted to the Quincy Institute Responsible Statecraft site June 22) In the wake of Gustavo Petro’s presidential election victory in Colombia, a preview of areas where the U.S. government could work with him (peace implementation, environment, ethnic and women’s rights, anticorruption) and where there may be a collision course (drugs, Venezuela, trade, the military “special relationship”).

Colombia’s politics are changing dramatically. U.S. policy must change too. (posted June 16) Posted in the runup to Colombia’s momentous presidential election, a look at what the implications might be for U.S. policy toward a country President Biden views as a “keystone.”

OK, in the end, this post actually took me a while to write, especially on a Saturday afternoon when there’s a lot going on around the house. Still, I resolve to do a better job of sharing recent work when it comes out.

Have a good weekend

Here’s Bartees Strange performing Bon Iver’s “Skinny Love.”

Latin America Security-Related News: June 30-July 1, 2022

(Even more here)

July 1, 2022

Argentina, Venezuela

HRW Chief Tamara Taraciuk wondered on social media whether Fernández’s approach to the Venezuelan question stemmed from “Ignorance or selectivity?”

Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela

El presidente de Paraguay, Mario Abdo Benítez, ratificó que «gran parte» de la tripulación del avión venezolano-iraní en Argentina tiene nexos con el terrorismo


Una reforma constitucional que permitiría al Presidente de la República, Gabriel Boric, destinar -en forma inmediata y sin demasiados trámites- a las FF.AA. para cuidar espacios públicos o lugares estratégicos


Eduardo Zapateiro had publicly criticized the leftist leader, who has vowed to crack down on corruption in the armed forces

Una investigación de Blu Radio develaría que altos funcionarios del DNP, la Contraloría, contratistas y congresistas conservadores se habrían apropiado del dinero para desarrollar el Acuerdo de Paz en los municipios más golpeados por la guerra

Desde que se posesionó Iván Duque y hasta el 30 de abril de este año fueron asesinados por lo menos 545 líderes campesinos, indígenas, ambientales, sociales y comunales

Quedan muchas inquietudes sobre la insistencia del Gobierno saliente en reanudar, a como dé lugar, las aspersiones aéreas con glifosato

Paramilitary drug lord, alias “Memo Fantasma” or “Will the Ghost,” may soon walk out of prison in Colombia, after the prosecutor fumbled two hearings designed to keep the accused in pre-trial detention. Underworld sources suspect foul play

“Es un fenómeno que sigue vigente y que, alimentado por una multitud de factores, se constituye en uno de los obstáculos centrales para avanzar hacia un proyecto nacional de paz”

La relación entre ciudadanía y policía se rompió porque torturó, fue cómplice del paramilitarismo, el narcotráfico y grupos ilegales


The deal, which includes a decrease in the price of fuel and other concessions, was signed by Government Minister Francisco Jiménez, Indigenous leader Leonidas Iza and the head of the Episcopal Conference, Monsignor Luis Cabrera


La exfiscal de derechos humanos de Guatemala, Hilda Pineda, quien en el pasado llevó a juicio al exdictador José Efraín Ríos Montt por delitos de genocidio, fue destituida de la institución meses después de dejar el cargo como fiscal de derechos humanos


Honduras’ new government should enact reforms to better protect basic rights and the rule of law after years of setbacks since the 2009 coup, Human Rights Watch said today in releasing a letter to President Xiomara Castro

El Comando Sur de Estados Unidos se comprometió en apoyar el mantenimiento de la flota de aviones F5 y puso a disposición los helicópteros de la Fuerza de Tarea Conjunta Bravo en caso de desastres naturales


Este es el balance

El presidente Andrés Manuel López Obrador dijo que se requiere de otra reforma a la Constitución para que la Guardia Nacional ya no sea administrada por la Secretaría de Seguridad

Se busca preservar valores institucionales y la cultura de transparencia, destaca Sandoval

U.S.-Mexico Border

Experts say human smugglers are increasingly using 18-wheeler trucks to move large numbers of migrants, and court records reviewed by Reuters offer a detailed look at how the process plays out

In a 5-4 opinion written by Chief Justice John Roberts, the high court rejected arguments by Republican-led states seeking to force officials to keep the policy

Truck driver was high on meth, officials say

The uncertainty post-decision echoed through San Diego immigration courtrooms hours later

The Supreme Court ruled in the Biden administration’s favor and will allow it to end the Migrant Protection Protocols, also known as Remain in Mexico

51% of the 1,018 U.S. Latino adults surveyed said they strongly supported or somewhat supported keeping Title 42 in place, compared to 44% who said they opposed it


US Special President Envoy for Hostage Affairs Roger Carstens was able to meet with wrongfully detained Americans while in the capital city of Caracas

June 30, 2022


En abierta vulneración al sigilo profesional y a la reserva de la fuente, la Fiscalía General de la Nación ordenó inspección judicial contra Cambio

El Salvador

En trece años, siete defensores ambientales han sido asesinados en El Salvador, un país que no los reconoce, sino que los acosa y criminaliza


Utilizaba sus redes sociales para hacer críticas a los políticos locales y al gobierno estatal

La corporación que comenzó a funcionar en 2019 no ha logrado contener la violencia y está lejos de consolidarse como una instancia civil

El arresto del general Salvador Cienfuegos “enfureció al gobierno mexicano y generó una cooperación limitada en materia de seguridad”

U.S.-Mexico Border

Border Patrol officials say truck traffic is too voluminous to check every vehicle at the dozens of immigration checkpoints on roadways near the border


La embajada de EEUU pidió a los interesados en comunicarse con ellos que lo hagan a través de las redes sociales y canal de WhatsApp

Weekly U.S.-Mexico Border Update: July 1, 2022

With this series of weekly updates, WOLA seeks to cover the most important developments at the U.S.-Mexico border. See past weekly updates here.

This week:

  • The Supreme Court upheld the Biden administration’s cancellation of the “Remain in Mexico” program. By a 5-4 vote, judges determined that lower courts could not compel the administration to re-start the Trump-era program, as it had by sending about 5,000 asylum seekers back to Mexican border cities since December.
  • A horrific tragedy in San Antonio, Texas—the death of 53 migrants smuggled in a stifling hot tractor-trailer—drew attention to the dangers faced by those unable to access legal asylum and migration channels, during a year that appears likely to see record-breaking numbers of deaths near the U.S.-Mexico border.
  • The House Appropriations Committee drafted its 2023 Homeland Security budget bill. It includes a Republican amendment that, if made law, would preserve the Title 42 pandemic expulsions policy, potentially for years.

Supreme Court allows Biden administration to terminate “Remain in Mexico”

With a 5-4 decision on June 30, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that the Biden administration did not violate immigration law when it ended the controversial Trump-era Migrant Protection Protocols (MPP) or “Remain in Mexico” program. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) may now proceed with its plan to stop sending asylum seekers to await their U.S. hearings in Mexico.

The Trump administration, which began implementing Remain in Mexico in January 2019, sent 71,076 asylum-seeking migrants back into Mexico until their next immigration court dates. At least 1,544 of them suffered “murder, rape, torture, kidnapping, and other violent assaults” in Mexico , Human Rights First has reported.

Fulfilling a campaign promise, the Biden administration began shutting down the program with a February 2021 executive order and a June 2021 memorandum, bringing many of the asylum seekers into the United States. That process was halted in August 2021 when Amarillo, Texas federal judge Matthew Kacsmaryk ruled—in a suit brought by the Republican attorneys-general of Texas and Missouri—that the Biden administration had not properly terminated Remain in Mexico. Kacsmaryk ordered the program to restart, and the Biden administration appealed, issuing a new termination memorandum in October 2021. In December, the 5th Circuit blocked the administration’s attempt to end the program. The Supreme Court heard arguments in April.

Since its court-ordered restart of the program got underway in December, the Biden administration sent more than 4,300 (or 5,114, or at least 5,600) asylum seekers, primarily from Cuba, Nicaragua, and Venezuela, back to Mexico to await hearings.

Chief Justice John Roberts and Justice Brett Kavanaugh joined the court’s three liberal members in agreeing that the renewed “Remain in Mexico 2.0” may now come to an end. “The Government’s rescission of MPP did not violate section 1225 of the INA [Immigration and Nationality Act], and the October 29 Memoranda constituted final agency action,” the court’s decision reads.

While the Republican state attorneys-general may persist with their litigation before Judge Kacsmaryk, it appears that he and other lower-court judges are now unable to force DHS to revive the program while litigation proceeds through lower courts.

Should a challenge to Remain in Mexico’s termination make its way back up to the Supreme Court, the justices’ decision indicates that they might strike it down. The majority found that Remain in Mexico was a discretionary program: something that the Biden administration “may” continue carrying out, but was not required to. The court noted that the law also allows DHS other options, including detention (which Congress doesn’t fund fully enough to detain all asylum seekers) or parole into the U.S. interior, which is increasingly being used.

The Court also found that Remain in Mexico carries too many “foreign affairs consequences” for it to be mandatory. Forcing the administration to negotiate with Mexico to accept other countries’ asylum-seeking migrants “imposes a significant burden upon the Executive’s ability to conduct diplomatic relations with Mexico, one that Congress likely did not intend section 1225(b)(2)(C) to impose,” the decision reads.

The count obtained by Syracuse University’s Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC) project (which is higher than DHS’s publicly reported count) shows that as of May 31, the court-ordered revival of Remain in Mexico had sent 5,114 asylum seekers to Mexican border cities. 1,109 of whom have had their cases decided or closed, with the rest still pending. It is not yet clear whether the remaining 4,000 will now have an opportunity to re-enter the United States to continue pursuing their cases.

Meanwhile, the Title 42 pandemic expulsions policy, prolonged by a Louisiana judge in May under other litigation from Republican state attorneys-general, remains in effect. While DHS returned 1,460 migrants to Mexico under the Remain in Mexico program in May, DHS expelled migrants 100,699 times under Title 42 that same month, usually into Mexico and always without a U.S. hearing date.

Tragedy in San Antonio highlights alarming increase in border deaths

In the late afternoon on June 27, a very hot day in San Antonio, Texas, a worker encountered a horrible scene along a road on the city’s outskirts. A refrigerated tractor trailer with no air conditioning unit had been left with its doors partially open. People inside were crying for help, but too weak to leave. Inside, as PBS reported it, were “people piled on top of each other. Bodies were also found strewn along the road near the scene.”

Read More

Latin America Security-Related News: June 28-29, 2022

(Even more here)

June 29, 2022

Western Hemisphere Regional

Consisting of five separate booklets, the World Drug Report 2022 provides an in-depth analysis of global drug markets and examines the nexus between drugs and the environment within the bigger picture of the Sustainable Development Goals, climate change and environmental sustainability


Before the deaths of Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira, Chico Mendes’ murder in 1988 and Dorothy Stang’s assassination in 2005 shook Brazil


Al dejar su cargo hace menos de tres meses, expresó que como comisionado fue estigmatizado por su vida en la milicia

Después de semanas de especulación sobre su futuro en el nuevo gobierno, el comandante dijo que dejará el cargo a partir del 20 de Julio, cuando se instale el nuevo Congreso

Con expectativa y algo de incredulidad fueron recibidas las respuestas del presidente electo Gustavo Petro, durante la entrevista que le concedió a Cambio sobre cómo será su relación con la fuerza pública

El informe final ofrece propuestas para cambiar la cultura de la guerra del país por una que promueva la paz

A special truth commission criticized Colombia’s security forces and the United States for their role in a half-century conflict that left at least 450,000 people dead

The truth commission, appointed as part of the 2016 peace deal between the government and rebel groups, recommended authorities stop focusing on prohibiting illicit drugs

Militarización, poder sobre las armas a civiles, hacer de la Policía un cuerpo para atacar la violencia, apoyo de paramilitares, fomentar la doctrina militar con el enfoque del enemigo interno, entre otros

El saliente ministro de Defensa, Diego Molano, deberá entregar información sobre el destino de ocho millones de dólares donados por Estados Unidos a la Policía

Dice que las rentas del tráfico de cocaína tienen relación estructural y orgánica con la economía.

  • Gwen Burnyeat, Petro Wins (London Review of Books, June 29, 2022).

Petro’s win, like the election of Gabriel Boric in Chile, means change for the region

Read More

Supply and demand

Here’s what it looks like when you chart out Table 8.3 in the just-released 2022 UNODC World Drug Report. This is the average price of a gram of cocaine sold on U.S. streets over the 31 years between 1990 and 2020, in 2020 inflation-adjusted dollars, adjusted for purity.

Two things stand out:

  • If the purpose of “supply side” drug policy is to make cocaine scarcer, it has largely failed to do so. The only moment when cocaine prices were a bit higher than usual—indicating some relative scarcity—was the late 2000s and early-to-mid 2010s. That was a time when aerial fumigation was declining in Colombia, and manual eradication and territorial governance efforts were increasing.
  • The White House’s last update on Andean cocaine showed the region’s total potential production of the drug increasing from 1,521 tons in 2016 to 2,132 tons in 2020. That’s a 40% potential supply increase. But this chart shows almost no decrease in price over those four years, just $6, or 3 percent. That probably tells us that the Andes’ big increase in coca and cocaine production is going to other countries’ drug markets, not to the United States, where there’s some balance between supply and demand.

The Wrong Man at the Wrong Time

After about 2 1/2 years, the commander of Colombia’s army, Gen. Eduardo Zapateiro, is leaving. This is not a bad thing. His exit is long overdue.

Why overdue? I can’t speak to the corruption allegations President-Elect Gustavo Petro hints at here, in a June 25 interview with Colombia’s Cambio magazine.

Rather, Gen. Zapateiro has been most problematic because of his public messaging on human rights and civil-military relations.

The General posted this charming tweet, a video of slithering snakes, the day after Colombia’s transitional justice tribunal (the Special Jurisdiction for Peace, JEP) published findings that the armed forces had killed 6,402 civilians between 2002 and 2008, falsely counting most victims as armed-group members killed in combat.

The investigators and JEP personnel denouncing “false positives,” you see, were reptiles.

Here’s the General, at one of the most intense moments of Colombia’s 2021 National Strike protests, calling the feared ESMAD riot police “heroes in black,” urging them to “keep working in the same manner that you have been.” At the time, the ESMAD were killing many protesters, and maiming dozens more.

Following a March 2022 raid in which soldiers likely killed at least 4 non-combatants, the General said, “This isn’t the first operation in which pregnant women and minors get killed.”

When candidate Petro, on Twitter, accused officers of colluding w/ the neo-paramilitary Gulf Clan, the General made a highly irregular foray into electoral politics, reviving an accusation that Petro had taken a cash bribe (charges were dropped in 2021).

Gen. Eduardo Zapateiro sent damaging messages on human rights. His public statements made the armed forces appear improperly aligned with a specific political ideology.

Meanwhile, Colombia’s insecurity measures worsened, and armed groups proliferated. So no, I won’t miss him.

Latin America Security-Related News: June 27, 2022

(Even more here)

June 27, 2022

Western Hemisphere Regional

UN human rights experts* have called on the international community to bring an end to the so-called “war on drugs” and promote drug policies that are firmly anchored in human rights

The Biden administration had instructed ICE agents to focus on immigrants who were considered a threat. But a judge’s order means millions more could now be targeted for deportation


Brazil leads the world in the number of murders linked to land rights and environmental issues, with most of them occurring in the Amazon


The relevance of this case-study goes well beyond the army operation in March or Comandos de la Frontera. It illustrates the difficulty of assessing armed groups in highly dynamic contexts

El Informe Final que el país conocerá mañana tendrá capítulos que ninguna otra comisión de la verdad en el mundo ha incluido: género y población LGBTIQ+, étnico, exilio y testimonial

The former paramilitary commander and drug lord, alias “Memo Fantasma,” may walk out of prison in Colombia on June 28

Gimena Sánchez-Garzoli, director for the Andes at the Washington Office on Latin America, joins Ryan Grim to discuss what Petro’s election means and how it happened

Integrantes de la coalición del Pacto Histórico han trabajado en una propuesta para acelerar la implementación del Acuerdo de Paz y otros temas urgentes para cerrar los ciclos de violencia que vive Colombia

Demuestra que las nuevas generaciones de Colombia creen en una salida institucional a las demandas sociales de la población

El nuevo gobierno empieza a pensar, basado en la premisa de que no hay enemigo interno, en unas Fuerzas Armadas que se concentren ya no en la guerra sino en la construcción de la paz

Primera entrevista del presidente electo Gustavo Petro. Habla de su reunión con Álvaro Uribe, de los acuerdos políticos y la inconformidad en sus filas, de sus relaciones con los militares y la Policía, de una propuesta para modificar la extradición

Más que desaparecerlo, lo que se espera es que cambie la figura por una que no sea una amenaza para la comunidad, pero sí pueda actuar en situaciones graves de orden público

Viajará hasta Washington para conversar con la vicepresidenta de Estados Unidos

Colombia, U.S.-Mexico Border


Dominican Republic, Haiti

El Cuerpo Especializado de Seguridad Fronteriza Te­rrestre (Cesfront) informó que tres haitianos resulta­ron heridos por balines de goma, en momentos que intentaron agredir a un miembro del Ejército


Ecuador’s government and indigenous leaders met on Saturday for the first formal talks since mass protests began two weeks ago, and President Guillermo Lasso eased security measures

As in 2019, when pre-pandemic protests led by the Indigenous brought Ecuador to a standstill, organizers are harnessing frustration over fuel prices

El Salvador

Varios de ellos son los que llevaron las negociaciones del pacto entre el gobierno salvadoreño y la pandilla M-S13. Sus testimonios en cortes estadounidenses podrían abrir para el presidente un camino similar al del hondureño Juan Orlando Hernández


He defends the reinstatement of more than 2,000 officers, attributing the decision to the institution’s being shorthanded


Organizaciones independientes estiman que, entre 2006 y 2021, se han denunciado más de 27,000 casos de tortura en México, similar al número registrado en la cruenta dictadura militar de Chile. Pero los expertos advierten que la cifra podría ser mucho mayor

Se les entregaron documentos migratorios por razones humanitarias, para un tránsito regular por territorio nacional


I just updated this slide for a talk I’m giving tomorrow, and… wow. The U.S. government has confirmed ambassadors serving in South American countries containing less than a quarter of South America’s population. (105 million out of 431 million people, according to WolframAlpha.)

There’s something to keep in mind the next time you hear a U.S. official, or U.S. senator whose job it is to confirm nominees, rending their garments about China’s growing influence in the hemisphere.

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