I asked my “narrowdown.org” congressional web database which members of Congress most consistently sign on to legislation or letters, or join caucuses, having to do with U.S.-Mexico border security. The result was the below list of 19 “hardliners” and 20 “reformers” in the House of Representatives.

Of the 19 hardliners, 18 are Republicans who won their districts by more then 10 percentage points in November. (The other is the lone Democrat, Henry Cuellar of south Texas.) Only one is a woman. Three represent districts whose population is over 30 percent Latino. Five sit on committees that oversee border security policy.

Of the 20 reformers, all are Democrats who won their districts by more than 10 percentage points in November. Fourteen represent districts whose population is over 30 percent Latino. Four sit on committees that oversee border security policy.

This is an inexact tool: for instance, it omits hardliner Michael McCaul (R-Texas) and reformer Lucille Roybal-Allard (D-California), a committee chairman and a ranking Democrat whose positions lead them to sponsor fewer bills. But it still yields an interesting result.

Hardliners: favor building up border security and cracking down on immigration

  • Rep. Jodey Arrington, R-TX 19 (Abilene, Lubbock); partisan index R+27%
  • Rep. Lou Barletta, R-PA 11 (Carlisle, Harrisburg, Hazleton, Sunbury); partisan index R+13%
  • Rep. Diane Black, R-TN 6 (Cookeville, Gallatin); partisan index R+27%
  • Rep. David Alan “Dave” Brat, R-VA 7 (Glen Allen, Spotsylvania, Richmond area); partisan index R+5%
  • Rep. Mo Brooks, R-AL 5 (Decatur, Huntsville, Shoals); partisan index R+18%
  • Rep. Michael C. Burgess, R-TX 26 (Lake Dallas, Denton, Dallas-Fort Worth area); partisan index R+15%
  • Rep. Ken S. Calvert, R-CA 42 (Corona, Murrieta); partisan index R+7%
  • Rep. Henry Cuellar, D-TX 28 (Laredo, Mission, Rio Grande City, San Antonio); partisan index D+9%
  • Rep. Matt Gaetz, R-FL 1 (Pensacola); partisan index R+22%
  • Rep. Thomas Garrett, R-VA 5 (Charlottesville, Danville); partisan index R+7%
  • Rep. Louie B. Gohmert Jr., R-TX 1 (Longview, Lufkin, Marshall, Nacogdoches, Tyler); partisan index R+25%
  • Rep. Paul A. Gosar, R-AZ 4 Gold Canyon, Kingman, Prescott); partisan index R+22%
  • Rep. Duncan D. Hunter, R-CA 50 (El Cajon, Escondido, Temecula); partisan index R+9%
  • Rep. Walter B. Jones Jr., R-NC 3 (Greenville, Havelock, Jacksonville); partisan index R+13%
  • Rep. Steve A. King, R-IA 4 (Ames, Fort Dodge, Mason City, Sioux City, Spencer); partisan index R+16%
  • Rep. Kenny Ewell Marchant, R-TX 24 Irving, Dallas-Fort Worth area); partisan index R+4%
  • Rep. David “Phil” Roe, R-TN 1 (Kingsport, Morristown); partisan index R+31%
  • Rep. Lamar S. Smith, R-TX 21 (Austin, Kerrville, San Antonio); partisan index R+6%
  • Rep. Joe G. Wilson, R-SC 2 (Aiken/Barnwell, West Columbia); partisan index R+10%

Reformers: favor less coercive border security and welcome immigration

  • Rep. Tony Cardenas, D-CA 29 (San Fernando Valley); partisan index D+31%
  • Rep. Judy M. Chu, D-CA 27 (Claremont, Pasadena); partisan index D+19%
  • Rep. Yvette D. Clarke, D-NY 9 (Brooklyn); partisan index D+34%
  • Rep. Ruben Gallego, D-AZ 7 (Phoenix); partisan index D+25%
  • Rep. Raul M. Grijalva, D-AZ 3 (Tucson, Yuma, southwest to border); partisan index D+15%
  • Rep. Luis V. Gutierrez, D-IL 4 (Chicago); partisan index D+35%
  • Rep. Barbara Lee, D-CA 13 (Oakland, Berkeley); partisan index D+42%
  • Rep. Zoe Lofgren, D-CA 19 (San Jose); partisan index D+26%
  • Rep. Michelle Lujan Grisham, D-NM 1 (San Jose); partisan index D+26%
  • Rep. James P. “Jim” McGovern, D-MA 2 (Leominster, Northampton, Worcester); partisan index D+9%
  • Rep. Gwen Moore, D-WI 4 (Milwaukee); partisan index D+26%
  • Rep. Grace F. Napolitano, D-CA 32 (El Monte, east of Los Angeles); partisan index D+20%
  • Rep. Beto O’Rourke, D-TX 16 (El Paso); partisan index D+20%
  • Rep. Linda T. Sanchez, D-CA 38 (Norwalk, Los Angeles Area, Orange County); partisan index D+20%
  • Rep. Janice D. “Jan” Schakowsky, D-IL 9 (North side Chicago, Evanston, Glenview); partisan index D+23%
  • Rep. Jose E. Serrano, D-NY 15 (Bronx); partisan index D+44%
  • Rep. Darren Soto, D-FL 9 (South Orlando, Kissimmee); partisan index D+6%
  • Rep. Norma Torres, D-CA 35 (Ontario, Pomona); partisan index D+20%
  • Rep. Juan Vargas, D-CA 51 (San Diego, El Centro, border); partisan index D+25%
  • Rep. Filemon Vela, D-TX 34 (Alice, Brownsville, San Benito, Weslaco); partisan index D+10%

Reformers met at least two of these conditions. Three members met three (Brooks, King, and Smith):

  1. Co-Sponsors H.R.2146 Unaccompanied Alien Children Placement Transparency Act of 2017
  2. Co-sponsors 2017 House Anti-Border Corruption Reauthorization Act
  3. Cosponsors HR 1813 – Border Wall Funding Act
  4. Cosponsors HR 2186 – El CHAPO Act
  5. Cosponsors HR 82 Criminal Alien Deportation Enforcement Act
  6. Members of House Border Security Caucus

Reformers met at least five of these conditions. One member met nine (Gutierrez):

  1. Co-Sponsors H.R.1608 ICE and CBP Body Camera Accountability Act
  2. Co-Sponsors H.R.2572 Protect Family Values at the Border Act
  3. Co-Sponsors H.R.920 – Protecting Our Border Communities Act Nullifying January 25, 2017 Executive Order
  4. Members of Congressional Hispanic Caucus Task Force on Immigration and Border Issues
  5. Cosponsors Border Enforcement Accountability, Oversight, and Community Engagement Act
  6. Cosponsors HR 1477 – No Taxpayer Funding for the Wall Act
  7. Cosponsors HR 837 – Build Bridges Not Walls Act
  8. Members of House Border Caucus
  9. Signers of House Letter Opposing Immigration Raids 2016-01-12
  10. Signers of asylum turnback letter 2017-05-25